People are often encountered many natural disasters such as forest fire or wildfire, super storm and flash flooding that have occurred as a consequence of global warming and climate change across the globe. It’s seen that people have to face different impacts of climate changes and severe weather conditions that can cause in many different places at an alarming rate. At present, its effects of a climate change can also be seen in our environment that would befall us as a direct consequence and its related menaces in many parts of the world, especially small island countries, developing and less-developed countries.
It is learnt that Myanmar is one of the most disaster-prone nations in the Southeast Asian region. According to the data, there were totaling 1218 natural disasters that happened from 2012 through 2018 including inundating, storms and windstorms. As a result, series of natural disasters in ASEAN region have affected up to 66 million people and the total economic cost of the disaster has amounted to US$ 15.9 million. As it is well known to us, the effects of natural disasters have a direct adverse effects on the socio-economic development of a country. These can make hindrance to the speed of economic growth and nation’s future prospects. According to the data conducted from 2006 through 2015, it was learnt that average 1.82 per cent of the country’s GDP has lost every years on account of these natural hazards that could hamper the progress of socio-economic development of the country, on the ground that the money that could use as a source for financial investment to help the country’s development has turned into rehabilitation programmes.
That’s why it is much needed to speed up the measures to respond the hazardous challenges not only in the region but also into the global whole. India has undertaken the rescue, relief and rehabilitation works after the earthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami occurred in 2004. Likewise, International Day for Disaster Reduction _ IDDR has been celebrated across the world with the aim of drawing the attention of the people and launching the campaigns to mitigate the disasters and carrying out these tasks extensively.
The IDDR has been holding in many states and regions in Myanmar for nine years and it has been initiated as a campaign from 2011 through 2014 in towns and cities across the country. On that day, measures had been taken as a top priority for the benefits of the children, women, handicapped and other senior citizens. This ceremony has been held with the aim of mitigating the damages and handing down this tradition and culture.
The Seven Global Targets
Similarly, In March 2015, the third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction was held in Sendai City, Japan and a new framework for concrete indicators of progress towards those goals to be measured against the disaster losses. The Sandai Framework Agreement is the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda, with seven targets and many countries had been urged to carry out these goals during 2015-2030.
The Seven Global Targets
(a) Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 100,000 global mortality rates in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
(b) Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to lower average global figure per 100,000 in the decade 2020 -2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
(c) Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030.
(d) Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030.
(e) Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020.
(f) Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of this Framework by 2030.
(g) Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030.
The International Day for Disaster Reduction (IDDR) has been held with the aim of promoting a global culture of disaster reduction, including disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness. And this day has grown into a major global awareness event celebrated in many ways to encourage efforts to build more disaster-resilient communities and nations. The 2016 theme is “Live to Tell: Raising Awareness, Reducing Mortality”, which targets to reduce mortality globally.
The theme of 2017 “Home Safe Home: Reducing Exposure, Reducing Displacement” seeks to raise global awareness about effective actions, policies and practices taken to reduce exposure to disaster risk at the community level thereby contributing to saving homes and livelihoods.
The International Day for Disaster Reduction 2018 under the theme of The SDGs and Disaster Risk Reduction: Meeting Target C of the Sendai Framework (Reducing the economic loss of disasters).
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 outlines seven clear targets and four priorities for action to prevent new and reduce existing disaster risks.
It aims to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries around the world.
Regarding the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, national governments have been using the Sendai Monitor platform to track progress using a series of indicators that inform seven Global Targets originally agreed in 2015. Moreover the UN General Assembly adopted a set of 38 agreed indicators based on work led by an open-ended intergovernmental expert working group (OIEWG) on indicators and terminology relating to disaster risk reduction. As for the countries, assignments have been made to submit the progress of the reports, and Myanmar had submitted its first report utilizing Online Monitoring System on September 18, 2018. The report contained the numbers of causalities caused by disasters from 2015, 2016 and 2017 respectively. Another report from 2005 to 2014 will have to submit in order to review and evaluate the effectiveness of the disaster risk reduction. According to the statistics of the reports conducted from 2006 to 2015, measures will have to make to reduce the loss of GDP by 1.82 percent in 2030.
The important thing is that every country makes an effort to reduce the damages caused by the disaster and natural disasters have been increased due to global warming and climate change. With this in mind, acting in a spirit of cooperation is needed and it is of great importance for the people to have awareness regarding the hazards of disasters and to put it into practice in daily life.
Translated by Win Ko Ko Aung