The Eight parts of speech have been taught in elementary English grammar school. Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Adjectives, Conjunctions, Interjections and Prepositions are eight parts of speech and they are words. Basic English sentence pattern is Noun.Verb.Noun. A Sentence is composed with words in the correct grammatical order and it must have sense and meaning which are logical. Therefore, the choice of words is important in both spoken form and written form. A single English word has more than one meaning.
In this IT age, we must be alert to learn new English words for communicating with English speaking people worldwide. Even then we should be able to utilize and familiarize these new words in the respective academic studies properly. The English new words are increasing from time to time. They appear in the Information Technology and in other various fields of study. Some of them are coined for daily life events and expression etc. We should catch their meanings and implications so that we will be familiar with them. Later, we will be able to utilize these buzz words properly for suitable situations when we speak and write.
Generally, English vocabulary words are classified into the following groups.
• Antonym : Word having the opposite meaning of the another word
Example words: the word ‘old’ has two possible antonyms: ‘young’ and ‘new’.
• Synonym: Word which has the same or almost the same meaning as another
Example words: ‘Shut’ and ‘close’, ‘happy’ and ‘gay’ are synonyms
• Homonym: Word that is identical in spelling and pronunciation to another word but has a different meaning.
Example words: a. ‘quail’ (as a noun; means any species of small game bird from the genus Coturnix) b. ‘quail (as a verb; means cringe) c. ‘bear’(as a noun; means large mammal of family Ursidae) d. ‘bear’(as a verb; endure )
Example sentences: a. A female quail is looking after her chicks. b. The dog quailed at the sight of the whip. c. There is a bear in the garden. d. We cannot bear the intense heat of the sun shine.etc.
• Acronym: Word formed from the first initials of several words
Example words: UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization), NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), etc.
• Hypernym: Word with an extensive meaning that forms a category under which more specific words fall. e.g. the word ‘musical instrument’ is a hypernym of ‘piano’.
• Collocation: It is called word partners—a natural combination of words.
Example word partners: 1. Start a family (Think about having a first child) 2. Start a car (turn on the engine) 3. vitally important 4. wide range 5.vast majority 6. formidable opponent (in sport) 7. strong accent 8. slight accent 9. chain smoker 10. Dry wine 11. Surf the internet 12. icy cold (weather condition) 13.utterly ridiculous 14.crystal clear 15. platonic relationships 16. sasual acquaintances 17. restore peace 18. disband an army (war and peace task) 19. fragile peace (a peace that could easily be destroyed) 20. wireless hotspots (in telecommunications) 21. Rampant inflation (in economy) 22.bustling centre (in a big city) 23.public health 24.sheer luxury 25. Gauge reaction (to test the response – usage in news media)26. excite speculation (cause rumors to circulate –used in news media) 27.Prime-time television (most popular time of day for watching TV) 28. Win a scholarship (Education) 29. Play truant (student who stays out of school without permission) 30.set texts (specific books which students must study), etc.
Learning collocations helps you to speak and write English in a more natural and accurate way. It also helps you to increase your range of English vocabulary.
• Jargons: They are professional vocabulary or technical terms.
Example jargons: supernumerary seat (An extra seat in an aircraft for flight officer), go-show ticket (a flight ticket at the airport if there is a vacant seat available on the plane), roustabouts and roughnecks (workers who work on the oil rig), invigilator (a teacher who watches student in the examination hall), Actuary (one who calculates insurance risks and premiums according to statistical probabilities), Landslide victory (political term), upstream (oil exploration and drilling stage), economic boom (thriving of the economy), waiter’s friends (a small gadgets used by waiter while serving the guests for opening the cap of wine bottle or cutting food), remedial classes (In school, teachers usually explain the previous exercises and correct answers to the students in the class) etc.
• Buzz words: New words or neologism
1. Carbon-neutral (adjective); adopting measures to prevent polluting the atmosphere with carbon emissions
2. Food miles (noun. countable. usually plural); the distance that a food item travels from the place where it is produced to the place where it is eaten
3. staycation (noun); a holiday in which you stay at home visit places near to where you live
4. citizen journalism (noun) ; the gathering and reporting of news by ordinary people rather than professional reporters
5. meme (or) Internet meme (noun); a concept or idea that spreads very quickly via the Internet
6. WiFi / Wi-fi /Wifi /wifi (noun) = Wireless Fidelity; a networking system which enables a wireless connection between an electronic device and the internet
7. security mom (noun ); in the USA, a woman with children who is particularly concerned about terrorism and security issues
8. hacktivist (noun); a person who changes or manipulates information on the internet in order to convey a political message
9. tweetup /tweet-up (noun); a meeting of two or more people who know each other through the Twitter short messaging service
10. OMG (Interjection ) informal ; an abbreviation of ‘Oh My God’ : used to show surprise or excitement about something, especially in e-mails, text messages and social networking websites
11. green (verb) transitive; to make something more environmentally-friendly
12. quantitative easing (noun); when a central bank creates a supply of new money to put into a banking system which is in serious difficulty
13. m-learning / mobile learning (noun); learning methods and materials that involve the use of mobile phones or handheld computer
14. digital native (noun); a person who has grown up in a world with digital technology such as the internet and mobile phones
15. digital immigrant (noun); an antonym (opposite ) of ‘digital native’
16. facebook (verb) or Facebook (noun)
a. to communicate with someone by using the Facebook website
b. to search for information about someone by using the Facebook website
17. WAG or wag (noun) Informal ; the wife or girlfriend of a famous professional footballer
18. fat tax (noun) countable/uncountable ; a tax on foods which are considered to be unhealthy, especially fatty or sweet foods which can lead to obesity or other health problems
19. wiki or Wiki (noun); a website where users can collectively add or modify text
20. phishing (noun); the criminal activity of persuading
people to give personal information such as pass
words and credit card details by directing them to a
fake website which has been made to look exactly
the same as the website of a legitimate bank or
other organization etc.
• Portmanteau word; Word or morpheme formed from two other separate units or parts of two words.
Example words; 1. ‘Smog,’ formed from ‘smoke; and ‘fog’. 2.’edutainment’, formed from ‘education ‘and ‘entertainment’
3. ‘bedsit’, formed from ‘bedroom’ and ‘sittingroom’
4. ‘swatch’, formed from ‘swiss’ and ‘watch’
5. ‘hazchem’, formed from ‘hazardous’ and ‘chemicals’
6. ‘chunnel’, formed from ‘channel’ and ‘tunnel’
7. ‘vegeburger’, formed from ‘vegetarian’ and ‘(ham) burger’
8. ‘fantabulous’, formed from ‘ fantastic’ and ‘fabulous’
9. ‘brunch’, formed from ‘breakfast’ and ‘lunch’
10. ‘Oxbridge’, formed from ’Oxford’ and ‘Cambridge’
11. ‘camcorder’, formed from ‘camera’ and ‘video recorder’
12. ‘shopaholic, formed from ’shopping’ and ‘alcoholic’
14. ‘ginormous’, formed from’ gigantic’ and ‘enormous’
15. ‘motel,’formed from ‘ motor’ and ‘hotel’
16. ‘interpol’, formed from ‘international’ and ‘police’
17. ‘Guesstimate’, formed from ‘guess’ and ‘estimate’
18 ‘ScotRail’, formed from ‘Scotland’ and ‘railway’
19. ‘Amex’, formed from ‘American’ and ‘express’
20. ‘oxfam’, formed from ‘Oxford’ and ‘famine’
21. ‘Eurovision’, formed from ‘Europe’ and ‘Television’
22. ‘fanzine’, formed from ‘fan-club’ and ‘magazine’
23. ‘ecotastrophe’, formed from ‘ecological’ and ‘catastrophe’
24. ‘docudrama’, formed from ‘documentary’ and ‘ drama’ etc.
When a learner or a user of language is rich in vocabulary, he or she can speak, write and read fluently. To be able to acquire fluency in English, the learner must expand his language exposure. Hopefully, this small collection of lexicon will enhance the learner’s or the user’s aptitude to some degree.
By: Tommy Pauk