Encouraging citizens to change their behaviour


Scholars and management scientists, in their effort to make people understand what governance is, talk of understanding governance as (i) a structure and (ii) a process. Governance as a structure, as pointed out by Pierre and Peter, includes hierarchy, market, network and communities. Likewise, there are five modes of governance as discussed by Stephen Bell and Andrew Hindmoor (2009): via hierarchy, via persuasion, via market, via engagement and via association.
From the structural perspective of governance, the ideal model of state is governance versus hierarchy. This type of control is conducted by and through vertically integrated state structure of democratic government and public bureaucracy. It essentially means governance by law and distinction between public and private. Nonetheless, this model has been criticized and calls for smaller scales, flexibility, diversification, informal exchange rather than formal control.
Notwithstanding, when it comes to allocation of resources, the most efficient mechanism is governance via market, which allows the state to allocate resources where it has not been employed efficiently (Pierre and Peter 2000; pp, 18-19). It is believed that it reinforces citizens by empowering them in a similar way as power is exercised by the consumers. It empowers the people to have a say in public service of allowing market to take over the responsibilities within certain limited bounds, thereby creating a market like situation for such services which would facilitate the clients to choose directly.
Governance via network regulates and co-ordinates the policy sectors according to the choices of the actors involved rather than concerning the public policy. The shift from government to governance has strengthened the policy networks because of the declining dependence on the formal legal process. On the other hand, the governance via greater participation of the communities in the collective matters encourages civic spirit in the community without large public bureaucracies. Lastly, the governance through persuasion is a mode of governance to be achieved through a mode of self-discipline or compliance in the target subject (Bell and Hindmoor 2009; p.17). This means encouraging citizens to change their behaviour through law, taxes, regulations along with persuasions in matters like persuading the citizens to drink less, to avoid chewing betel nut, to be health conscious, to report a suspected criminal and/or a terrorist and to be engaged in voluntary activities etc.

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