- Ba Sein
In the history of Buddhism of Myanmar, the very First Congregation of the Sangha of All Orders was successfully held in 1980 to carry out purification, perpetuation and propagation of the Buddha Sasana throughout the world as well as to reconstrust the unity of the members of the Sagha all over the country. The unity of the members of the Sangha is very important because it was found in the history of Buddhism that, without the unity of the members of the Sangha, it was impossible to carry out the noble task of the purification, perpetuation and propagation of the Buddha Sasana (the Teachings of the Buddha).The Buddha Himself urged the members of the Sangha to unite in implementing the purification, perpetuation and propagation of His Teachings.
Over 2560 years ago, after the noble demise of the Buddha, altogether six Buddhis great synods were held in order to purify, perpetuate and propagate the Buddha Sasana (The Teachings of the Buddha). Although the six great Buddhist synods were successfully held, it was found that many different schisms and schools appeared in the Buddhist world, and they were really contradictory to are incompatible with the true Buddhism. They were unlawful views which absolutely endangered the noble teachings of the Buddha.
And also, in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, different schisms, schools and unlawful views which really endangered the Theravada Buddhism appeared within one hundred years. Hence, the Buddhist people, the members of the Sangha and the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar worried about it. In reality, we all Buddhists want the true Buddhism which indeed benefit and provides the interest and peaceful mind of all beings and leads to the world peace. We firmly believe that the world peace exists forever if we all could follow and practice the teachings of the Buddha.
In order to purify, perpetuate and propagate the Buddha Sasana and reconstruct the unity among members of different schools and sects of Sangha Orders throughout the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, the very First Congregation of the Sangha of ALL Orders of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar unanimously supported and encouraged by members of the Sangha, the Buddhist people and the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, was successfully held in 1980. The Congregation was attended by 1218 Sangha Samuti representatives of over five hundred thousand members of the Sangha throughout the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. The very first successful Congregation of the Sangha of ALL Orders could reconstruct the unity of the Sangha in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar for the first time within one hundred years. The successful Congregation approved and adopted the concrete resolutions regarding unity of the Sangha Organizations throughout the country in order to carry out the noble task of the Buddha Sasana (the Teachings of the Buddha) at home and abroad.
According to the resolutions of the very first successful Congregation of the Sangha of ALL Orders for the purification, perpetuation and propagation of the Buddha Sasana, the officially recognized nine sects of Sangha Orders and the different levels of Sangha Organizations are as follows:-
Nine official Sects of Sangha Orders
(1) Sudhamma Sect
(2) Shwe Kyin Sect
(3) Dhammanu Dhammma Mahadwara Nikaya Sect
(4) Dhammanulomamuladwara Nikaya Sect
(5) Anaukchaung Dwara Sect
(6) Veluvan Nikaya Sect
(7) Catubommika Mahasatipathana Ngettwin Sect
(8) Gannavimotti Kuto Sect
(9) DhammayottiNikaya Mahayin Sect
These different schools and sects of the Sanagha unitedly carry out the noble task of the purification perpetuation and propagation of Buddha Sasana under the guidance of the different levels of the Sangha Organizations which have been formed throughout the country.
Different levels of the Sangha Organization –
(1) State Patron Committee of the Sangha
(2) State Central Working Committee of the Sangha of ALL Orders
(3) State SanghamahanayakaCommittee
(4) State/Regional Sanghanayaka committees
(5) Township Sanghanayaka Committees
(6) Ward’ Village-tract Sanghanayaka Committees
Township Sanghanayaka Committees
Over (542) Township Sanghanayaka Committees comprising over ( 3900 ) members of the Sanagha have been formed through out seven States and seven Regions in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. In accordance with the fundamental principles of Sangha Organizations, members of Township Sanghanayaka Committees shall be elected only by majority of Sangha Working Committee members of repective townships with their free consent. The main objectives of Township Sanghanayaka Committees are to carry out the noble task of the purification, perpetuation and propagation of the Buddha Sasana and other religious matters in their respective townships.
Functions and duties of Township Sanghanayaka Committees
(1) Shall carry out their functions concerned in accordance with the fundamental principles approved and adopted by the Congregation of the Sangha of ALL Orders and procedures of Sangha Otganization. procedures of settlements of Vinavadhamma Kamma Adhikarenu Disputes Act, other decisions and instructions approved and passed by the meeting of the State Central Working Committee of the Sangha of ALL Otders.
(2) Shall perform their duties leading to the purification, perpetuation and propagation of the Buddha Sasana and the unity of the members of
(3) Shall make monks and novices (Samaneras) dwelling in their township to know and follow the instructions of the higher level’s of Sangha Organizations.
(4) Shall collect and prepare the final list of monk-hood/ novicehood of monks and novices in their township and send it to respective State/Regional Sanghanayaka Committes and State Sangha
(5) Shall report their functions to respective State/Regional Sanghanayaka Committees in their townships
(6) Shall issue necessary instructions to Ward/ Village-tract Sangha-nayaka Committees in their townships.
(7) According to the clause (93 ) sub clause ( I ) and ( K ), if submissions are made, it must he inquired and make appropriate decision and shall report it to respective State, Regional Sanghanayaka Committees.
(8) Shall perform to issue new registration cards of Sasana members and amend, substitute, cancel or keep back them as necessary in accordance with the instructions of higher levels of Sangha Organizations.
(9) Shall perform to sctutinize the Sasana mattes related to Pariyatti and Patipatti affairs.
(10) Shall perform to form Sangha Vinicchaya Court to decide and settle disputes cases arisimg in their township in accotdance with special prescribed procedures and settlements of Vanayadhamma-kamma. Adhikarana Disputes Act, and the court’s decision shall be informed to respective township authorities concerned to carry out the decisions to be obeyed.
(11) Shall conduct and supervise the election and limitation of Vinayadharas, Township Sangha Working Committee members and Ward/Village-tract Sanghanayaka committee members.
(12) Shall give advice and admonitions occasionally to the monks and novices in their township without affecting management of respective monasteries and monastic institutes.
(13) If it is necessary, shall consult with Township authorities concerned regarding the Sasana affairs in connection with Township authorities concerned.
(14) Out of the matters. the important ones which had been done within a year shall be submitted to the annual meeting of the Township Sangha Working Committee.
(15) If any representative of Sangha Samutti or any member of Vinayadharas, Sangha Working Committee, Sanghanayaka Committee and patron Committee falls vacant, it shall be informed to the respective State / Regional Sanghanayaka Committees and the State Sanghamahanayaka Committee within five days after vacancy has been learnt.
According to the functions and duties of the Township Sanghanayaka Committees. various matters and affairs in connection with the members of the Sangha or Sangha Organizations can only be decided and settled by members of the Sangha themselves. Matters, affairs or disputes in connection with the members of the Sangha cannot be decided and settled by any civil court or authorities concerned.