Overview of a Journey of Myanmar Culture Preservation and Promotion: The Emergence of Political Changes and the Cultural Policy

By Dr Nanda Hmun
Permanent Secretary (Retired)


Myanmar has a long cultural history and remained a high historical continuity and integrity of the nation-state with a vigorous tradition. Human beings were found on this Myanmar soil millions of years ago. Moreover, its high cultural standard with its long withstanding high cultural aspects stand out from the prehistoric periods of the Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age cultures to Proto Historic Period when the Pyu culture flourished, followed by successive periods like the Bagan Period till to the present.
The abundance of cultural properties like ancient cities, old palace sites, ancient cultural edifices and historical structures, terracotta rings, stone inscriptions, palm-leave manuscripts, and parabeiks which can be found in all parts of Myanmar are the proven pieces of evidence of Myanmar’s rich cultural heritage. In fact, the Myanmar cultural components: literature, performing arts, ten kinds of arts and crafts, architecture, and devotion to Theravada Buddhism have been perpetuated and flourished for more than thousands of years. Such kind of cultural characteristics has been preserved by generations starting from the early Pyu to the nationalities in the way of a single stem bearing hundreds of fruits.
The emergence of the Pyu from the Prehistoric period, 2,500 years ago, was listed as one of the high civilization peoples in Southeast Asia and according to the archaeological evidence, the Pyu civilization flourished in Central Myanmar and Upper Myanmar. From the emergence of those Pyu city-states like Tagaung, Beikthano, Halin, Sri Ksetra, and Mai Mao, they paved the synergy for the successive historical eras in Myanmar namely: Bagan Period, Pinya Period, Inwa Period, Taungoo Period, Nyaungyan Period and Konbaung Period.
Most scholars viewed culture together with civilization but Myanmar does not. The majority of Myanmar’s population believes in Buddhism, which is predominantly Theravada tradition. According to Buddhist teaching, moral ethics heavily reflect the living styles and culture of Myanmar people from generation to generation. Culture can make a society unique; it can be mentioned as an invisible link that ties a community together and also affects the development of one’s attitude towards life. Culture has been designated as the lifeblood of a vibrant society, a scale for civilization, expressed in many ways; telling our stories, celebrating the festivals, remembering the past, entertaining ourselves, and imagining the future.
The arts and culture were then deployed primarily by the state as an ideological tool to reinforce the discourses of nationalism and racial harmony among the main (8)ethnic groups: Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Chin, Myanmar, Mon, Rakhine and Shan. To this purpose, it was commonplace for schools and public institutions to use the arts as an opportunity for inter-ethnic interaction and symbolic displays of nationality through the showcasing of traditional ethnic dances alongside each other. The distribution of state funds for arts groups was dispensed as the State budget granted by the Ministry of Culture, without any long-term view to nurture the relationship between arts practitioners and the state and to showcase more at their respective States and Divisions.
The successive governments in Myanmar adopted attitudes towards cultural and educational policies by stressing the cultural identity and the use of the national language. According to these attitudes, the purpose of cultural policy is to mobilize the people to take a more active part in all cultural fields with the perspective of safeguarding tradition and customs. Thus, cultural activities like other social and economic activities have been affected by the “spirit of the masses.” The assignment of “Thabin Wun” (means Minister in charge of Performing Arts, especially for the Royal Courts) can be judged that Myanmar people are always aware of culture and tradition and its sustainability. The “cultural dimension” has been determined as one of the most important factors in the overall development plan. In this way, the successive Governments face the following tasks (common for those who are in the cultural arena):
• to preserve and revitalize cultural heritage by integrating vernacular cultures – folk tales and folk songs, handicrafts and art, museums and archaeological sites – into everyday life;
• to draw upon innovation and eradicate inappropriate traditions;
• to train competent staff in the field of culture and education;
• to encourage the area of cultural services (e.g., participation in the art);
• to stimulate creativity.
In general, those principles and methods of cultural policy, the evaluation of cultural needs, administrative structures and management, planning and financing, the organization of resources, legislation, budgeting, public and private institutions, cultural content in education, cultural autonomy and decentralization, the training of personnel, institutional infrastructures for meeting specific cultural needs, the safeguarding of the cultural heritage, institutions for the dissemination of the arts, international cultural co-operation and other related subjects have been considered to be put in the policy. For this reason, Myanmar established the Ministry of Union Culture (later changed to the Ministry of Culture) in 1954.
The current discourse about culture (expressions, industries, media, collaborations), insists that a culture policy is needed to be in line with the existing government national policy. Since Myanmar is a nation with various nationalities and requires a Culture and National Heritage Policy that recognizes this diversity. It has huge cultural resources and talents, which should be incorporated into the national agenda. Since culture provides the ideological and philosophical foundation for national development, which is central to all development programmes, the Culture Policy of Myanmar has to recognize culture as a repository of ‘knowledge’ which is manifested in all aspects of life as a guide to the evolution of morals, attitudes, beliefs and values in society.
Overview of Political Changes and the National Policy
Before Independence
Throughout the political changes, nationalism plays a key role and those cultural preservations and the implementing policy have been reflected in its nationalism and those embedded ideologies are implied too.
From 1824 to 1920: It is the Period of anti-colonialism and struggles against the British. The country is under the British for more than a decade and nationalism and its movements had been spread the cultural policy for that period will be the influence of the British and their culture and language.
From 1920 – 1930: It is the Period of demanding Home Rule under British administration and self-administered rule that had been highly demanded by the Myanmar-educated youths and active politicians.
From 1930-1942: 1930 is one of the remarkable milestones in Myanmar politics as it was the era of Do Bamar Asi Ayon which was largely joined by active and patriotic university students and participated in political movements. The slogan: “Thahkin myo hey Do Ba mar “ became the national slogan in which Thakin: Myanmar word refers to the “ Head or Superior”. The Thakin leaders were men who had spent a lifetime in politics, having first entered politics as students and youths in the pre-war anti-colonial struggle, then resisting first the British and later the Japanese during World War II and in the post-war and post-independence period, assuming positions of responsibility in the AFPFL (Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League) and in the organizations affiliated to it. The “Thakin myo hey Do Ba mar” Policy of the 1930s solely drove force for nationalism.
In 1942, which is the period of forming the Burma Defence Army (BDA), the Burma Independence Army (BIA) to fight against British Colonialism was joined by youths from all walks of life who were patriotic and active. The political will to get independence became the national policy and Getting Independence is the first priority; Independence is the second priority and the third also Independence.
This period (from 1945-1948) was followed by the forming of BPF (Burma Patriotic Force) which fought against the Japanese and highlighted the nationalistic policy driven by “Independence is the first; Democracy is the second and Socialism is the third” respectively.

After Independence
From 1948 to 1958, after getting Independence on 4 January 1948, multi-coloured insurgencies spread to the entire country and the split of AFPL factions and its consequences made the chaos and to restore peace and stability. The collapse of national solidarity had made the defections on ideological and racial grounds. This can be termed the “Union Government Era”. In the resolutions proposed and adopted in the Preparatory Convention of the AFPFL, it was clearly stated that there shall be a guarantee of racial and cultural rights.
From 1958 to 1960, due to those political events and instability, the solution is the establishment of a Caretaker Government devoted to the supervision of general elections. The national policy then focuses on peace and tranquillity as the first, democracy as the second and socialist economy as the third. This Caretaker Government was led by General Ne Win.
After the assumption of State power by the Tatmadaw in 1962, formed the Revolutionary Council. Under the Revolutionary Council Government, peace and tranquillity, and the welfare of the public were supervised and taken responsibility by the Security and Administrative Committees concerned at different levels. The formation of the state’s ideology under General Ne Win’s regime was “the Burmese Way to Socialism”. There are two main documents ideologically announced which were the benchmarks: the Burmese Way to Socialism and the Burmese Socialist Programme Party’s official ideology. It has been mentioned as “at any rate, it is domestic trouble that seemed to be the main threat and the conviction of the Revolutionary Council is apparently that both the Parliament system and those who worked it in this country have failed”. 1974 Constitution was announced under the Union of the Socialist Republic of Myanmar and the People Council Government Era which lasted till 1988. From 1962 to 1988, the reformation of the State under the name of “Burmese Way to Socialism” is the state policy till the upheaval took place in 1988.
To jeopardize the state peace and stability of the Union and Independence, the State Law and Order Restoration Council was formed and took the responsibility of executive and administrative responsibilities. To take the challenges: non-disintegration of the union; non-disintegration of the national races and consolidation of national sovereignty have been laid down as national legacy and national causes. Indeed it is the main backbone of the sovereignty and sustaining the peace and tranquillity of the state. Those Three National Causes announced have been the major political commitments of SLORC and SPDC and the national cultural policy is also reflected by those ideologies as the Objectives followed by the national motto.

Four Social Objectives vs Political Objectives
Since 1988 is the new chapter of the political landscape in Myanmar, it called for the emergence of a peaceful, modern and developed nation in which administrators are turned out to take responsibility for the security of the state, prevalence of law and order and socioeconomic development. People-oriented development has been demanded and the political thoughts and ideology of “change” has been appreciated and negotiations play a very important role. Along with the collapse of the General Ne Win regime in 1988, anti-government demonstrations led to the resignation of U Ne Win from the Chairman of BSPP.

(To Be Continued)

(Continued from yesterday)

Political Objectives
• Stability of the State, community peace and tranquillity, the prevalence of law and order;
• National Reconciliation;
• The emergence of a new enduring State Constitution;
• Building a new modern developed nation in accordance with the new state constitution
Social Objectives
• Uplift of the morale and morality of the entire nation;
• Uplift of national prestige and integrity and preservation and safeguarding of cultural heritage and national character;
• Uplift of dynamism and patriotic spirit;
• Uplift of health, fitness and education standards of the entire nation
One of the Social Objectives “Uplift of national prestige and integrity and preservation and safeguarding of cultural heritage and national character” has become the leading policy of the Ministry of Culture. It is clearly noted that there has been no special attention nor forming national culture or promulgating of laws for cultural preservation and dissemination of culture before its formation and the years that followed. There can be seen only the general view of culture preservation and safeguarding of ethnic cultures in the early days of its establishment in the 1950s. After the Two Constitutions: 1947 and 1974, historical events in the political sphere can be obviously seen as numerous, complicated, fragile, spilt, and delicate. They were also intertwined with economic, social, international relations and cultural spheres too. The Independence of Myanmar has suffered defections not only on ideological but also on racial grounds.
The ultimate objective of the Government and the people of the Union of Burma, as embodied in the Constitution, is to create a democratic Socialist State. The tyranny and oppression inherent in these two systems must not be allowed in the Socialist State and devise a way of life which will combine full political rights, economic security and a high standard of living with spiritual uplift and morality. It must not only guarantee religious freedom but also provide an opportunity for each individual to exercise his religious rights and beliefs at the highest possible plane. Socialism in Burma must be fully harmonized with the religious beliefs and cultural background and heritage of the people. This new era must not be imposed on the people from above. It must be set up by the people themselves and must harmonize with their culture, religious beliefs and traditions. This new era is none other than the Pyidawtha State to which the people of Burma had pledged themselves.
In accord with Articles 21 and 22 of the Constitution of the Union of Burma 1974, the National Culture Policy reflected in it emphasized the assimilation of the nationalities to be under one community as unity in diversity. The policy emphasizes “Burmese way to Socialism” a Myanmar identity for the state is more prior. It defines as guidelines for ‘national culture’ too. Since the Constitution allows all citizens to be equal before the law, regardless of race, religion, status or sex and enjoy the opportunities and benefits derived from their labour and develop and promote unity, mutual assistance and respect among the national races, cultures of all national races have been prior and promoted.
The 7-step Road Map is one of the milestones of SPDC (2003) for its commitment to driving building a modern, developed and democratic nation it highlighted only for the convening of the National Convention and it includes:
1. Reconvening of the National Convention that has been adjourned since 1996;
2. After the successful holding of the National Convention, step-by-step implementation of the process necessary for the emergence of a genuine and disciplined democratic state;
3. Drafting of a new constitution in accordance with basic principles and detailed basic principles laid down by the National Convention;
4. Adoption of the constitution through a national referendum;
5. Holding free and fair elections for Pyithu Hluttaws (Legislative bodies) according to the new constitution;
6. Convening of Hluttaws attended by Hluttaw members in accordance with the new constitution;
7. Building a modern, developed and democratic nation by the state leaders elected by the Hluttaw; and the government and other central organs formed by the Hluttaw,
It is noted that the way forward for a brighter future for the whole country is based on the objective conditions in the country as well as the aspirations of the entire people. During the Interim Period, the SLORC and SPDC had tried their utmost effort not only for peace and stability and tranquillity but also the establishment of the first and foremost cultural institution – the University of Culture in 1993 which is remarkable.
Cultural Administration and Cultural Development
According to Myanmar’s own perception and conception, her socioeconomic system, technological development and especially political ideology which reflect in its national policy are the factors that become to be determined for its cultural policy and methods. Issues related to the impacts of institutional, administrative and financial stress on the need, increasingly stressed for exchanging experiences and information, especially on technical aspects.
Myanmar culture has flourished for almost 2,000 years and Myanmar has currently developed over time and values within the culture which have undergone modification and impact of globalization. Especially for being under the British for more than a century and those civil unrests taking place for more than 70 years, Myanmar culture and tradition have many challenges to be survived and succeeded in blending other elements of our own nationalities into their own way of life with some observable dualism instead of being totally westernized and influenced by other alien cultures.
National Stakeholders and Culture Preservation in 21st Century
(i) Strong Stem of Myanmar Culture Preservation
The role of Monastic Education (Hpone daw gyi thin Pyin nya yay) Education System taught by Myanmar Buddhist Monks, established in the early days of Myanmar monarchy has been significantly spread out in the country even in the 21st century. The Syllabus focused on Myanmar ways and manners mingled with Myanmar history and the Jataka stories. They are the centres to foster better social integration (both in rural and urban areas), obligations of Myanmar societies, unity and peace. This is the place where Buddhist values like generosity, loving-kindness, reciprocal attention and appreciation can be imparted. Buddha’s teachings of non-violence, compassion, generosity, tolerance, etc can be taught and generated merit and practice too.
Before Independence and After
During the colonial period, the future of the Burmese nation was seen as closely tied to the future of the Buddhist dispensation. For the ethnic Burmese people, Burmese nationalism was almost inseparable from their Buddhist identity. Indeed, a common slogan of the independence movement was “To be Burmese means to be Buddhist”. One of the first and most influential of these nationalist Buddhist organizations was the Young Men’s Buddhist Association (YMBA), founded in 1906. They lead the role of preserving Myanmar Buddhist culture as much as they can since its establishment.
To carry out the series of cultural preservation projects and training schools/centres for cultural awareness and promotion only established after Independence in 1963 as the School of Fine Arts and School of Performing Arts in Yangon and Mandalay led by some leading artists and artistes under the guidance of Ministry of Union Culture. To this purpose, it was commonplace for schools and public institutions to use the arts as an opportunity for inter-ethnic interaction and for symbolic displays of multiculturalism through the showcasing of traditional ethnic dances alongside each other. The distribution of State funds for arts groups was also ad hoc, dispensed as the Project Grant by the then Ministry of Culture, without any long-term view to nurture the relationship between arts practitioners and the state.
Culture Dissemination and Promotion of Myanmar Culture: the Role of the Ministry of Culture
Ministry of Culture (renamed in 1972) with its mission: “to love and cherish the country and the people by taking pride in own good traditions as well as by preserving, exposing and propagating Myanmar cultural heritage throughout lengthy Myanmar and good traditions and customs”, is preserving, promoting and disseminating Myanmar culture and tradition with its main respective departments.
The fall of Myanmar Theatrical Performances with its poor technological inventories and unskilled dancers and low budgeting for costumes and performing programmes can be seen since the 1980s. It is only for the sake of the government and its Ministry of Culture to pay more attention and nurture the burgeoning artistes. To handover those cultures and traditions especially performing arts for systematic teaching to a good morale new generation, the University of Culture (established in 1993) under the Ministry of Culture has the following objectives: –
• Preservation and dissemination of Myanmar cultural heritage;
• Research and training the aim of Myanmar’s traditional culture and turning out outstanding artistes;
• Teaching traditional cultures and customs of indigenous national races at the university
• Upholding the spirit of nationalism and patriotism; Upbringing good artistes with high morality and nobility.
Under the leadership of BSPP (Burma Socialist Programme Party), the Ministry of Union Culture has the following policies: –
(1) To safeguard the National Culture; (National Culture is the Culture of all nationalities in Burma)
(2) To implement all cultural activities which support the Burmese Way to Socialism;
(3) To develop and upgrade the research on Myanmar Culture to be abreast with international standards;
(4) To study the cultures of other countries
To carry out the Culture Policy, the Union Culture Council of the Ministry of Culture observes the following actions: –
(1) To develop the genuine and envisioned Myanmar culture in its own way by sustaining the Myanmar Fine Arts and Performing Arts;
(2) To be the culture and arts supportive for the state and people;
(3) To be edutainment instead of entertainment and arts not for art’s sake but to give prior both to arts and people;
(4) To campaign and educate more on the ideology of people and their desire to be in line with changing way of a developing country;
(5) To keep and support the non-disintegration of the national races and consolidation of national sovereignty ;
(6) To abolish the alien cultures which are not in line with Myanmar’s Culture and society;
(7) To nurture civic duties and good behaviours and characters;
(8) To sustain and supportive for the national unity of the state by creating works on fine arts;
(9) To try towards the development and raising the standard of arts and culture

The Culture Education and Schools and Universities of Fine Arts and Culture
In order to preserve Myanmar’s cultural heritage and to promote a systematic way of disseminating Myanmar Fine Arts and Art Education, Myanmar has established respective state schools and National Universities.
Since cultural education is personal development using forms of cultural expression, arts and playing musical instruments, those schools and universities are very outstanding ones on a national scale. It is a prerequisite for cultural participation. It is general education because it enables young people to relate to themselves at the national level and to the world through arts and culture. On the other hand, Myanmar students can extend their views and perspectives on their own cultural beliefs and values and how these may be different from other cultures — including being able to learn about and honour the different cultures of their own nationalities. They are also given the opportunity to showcase their space for creativity upon their completion of the course and graduation. In this way, those rare courses like Myanmar Marionette Dance, Myanmar Musical Assemble (Saing-waing), Oboe (hnei) and Myanmar classical dances can be preserved and disseminated. Ensuring a faceted culture of Myanmar not only for entertainment at celebrations, but the impact of globalization is also to be taken into account. In the 21st century, to address questions related to cultural sustainability and the role of culture in sustainable futures, what is the role of culture play in both rural and urban societies? With the globalization impacts, Myanmar traditions and customs in everyday practices, living togetherness, costumes, food, identity-constructions and understandings, aesthetic and ethical values, artistic representations and performances, etc. have been influenced to a certain limit and are to be judged not to be swallowed a lot.
The University of Culture (established in 1993) which was changed to the National University of Arts and Culture (in 2007) opened with the aims of keeping dynamic patriotism, strengthening national unity and preserving national culture can extend many cultural courses. Moreover, during its 25 years of founding, not only Diploma and Master Courses are opened but also One Major Course like Film and Cinematography is opened and conferred Bachelor’s Degree.
Myanmar arts and culture industry
In an attempt to identify new industries with high growth potential, the arts and culture were recognised as more than an ideological state channel but also a potent tourist draw. The late 1990s and early 1990s also saw the convergence of several factors.
Firstly, in order to revitalize the Myanmar traditional arts and to turn out the budding talented new generation artistes, the Myanmar Traditional Performing Arts Competition was launched in 1993 to inject the country with greater cultural and entertainment exuberance for the dual purpose of attracting skilled Myanmar artistes. Secondly, by the early 1990s, the local theatre community had matured and was led largely by young theatrical artistes with many innovations. More crucially, this burgeoning theatre industry was supported by the broadening rural audiences as they have the disposable income to consume leisure activities and the desire to reflect on homemade stories and narratives. Thirdly, the Upheaval Period of 1988 and its impacts fuelled optimistic hopes of political and cultural liberalization and were unable to sustain the old theatrical and classical performances which call for large amounts of investments and skilled artistes. In order to meet the objective of reaching out to as many arts groups as possible and revival of traditional arts and performances, the Myanmar Traditional Performing Arts Competitions has become a State-supported competition for turning out talented youths with good respect for Myanmar traditional arts and culture. Since 1993, the government-led competitions and the rise in contestants from every corner of the country have been very supportive of cultural preservation and promotion.
The Role of Arts Associations (A si a yone)
One of the supportive arms of culture preservation in Myanmar, the following associations (non-government organizations)play an important role in their respective arts field and in safeguarding Myanmar culture:
• Thabin Asiayone (Theatrical Association)
• Gi ta Asiayone (Music Association)
• Pan Pyinyar shin Asiayone (Artist and Artisan Association)
Each association organizes respective artistes and artists sharing their main purpose of preserving Myanmar culture. One of the objectives of the Myanmar Theatrical Asiayone is to preserve, rehabilitate, propagate and upgrade the various theatrical art forms. The music committee is formed under the Myanmar Music Asiayone (Association)and the entertainment, information, social, and education are conducted. Myanmar traditional Artists and Asiayone display different forms of Art Exhibitions to educate the public. There are also different associations between media and literature too. Myanmar Radio and Television produce programmes that educate and entertain the public.

Support of International Organizations
Though Myanmar possesses many cultural assets both tangible and intangible, it has been neglected for ages and put up pressure on many political issues for the nomination to be included in UNESCO’s World Heritage List. It is the dream of Myanmar people to take pride in their cultural assets to be well known. Since there are criteria for the selection, the sites must be of Outstanding Universal Value, meaning that their cultural significance is so exceptional that it transcends national boundaries and are of common importance for present and future generations of all humanity.
According to its Inventory List, there are more than 3,500 surviving stupas, temples, monasteries, fortifications and other monuments. Bagan is set in an extensive landscape that also features archaeological deposits and the remains of an ancient water-management system. To be nominated, Myanmar has to prepare for six years. With the support of UNESCO, the series of capacity-building activities and fulfilling other criteria have to be done through the awareness raising of Staff and local inhabitants. Moreover, maps and the inventory of monuments have been updated and site conservation has been strengthened in line with international standards.
After the earthquake that heavily damaged the monuments of Bagan in August 2016, special attention was given to the development of a strategy which addresses the assessment of damages, post-earthquake stabilization and post-disaster rehabilitation. With the efforts of local Staff and authorities concerned, a detailed management plan for Bagan was also produced to enhance the legal and institutional framework for protecting the site. Without the feedback received from the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the professional and scientific advisory body for cultural heritage nominations, the selection work can not be done. With those cooperations, Myanmar can fulfil its wish as follows: –
• Inscribing of Three Pyu Cities in the UNESCO World Heritage List
• Inscribing of Bagan Ancient Archaeological Site in UNESCO World Heritage List
• Mya Zedi Kyauk-sar (Stone Inscription) in the UNESCO Memory of the World List
Myanmar has two World Heritage Sites on the list of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) as of 2022: Pyu Ancient Cities in 2014 and Bagan in 2019 respectively. Both locations are cultural and Myanmar also has 15 sites on its preliminary list.
Myanmar and its own way of cultural preservation and promotion
Myanmar’s value system is fundamental for the growth of Myanmar’s national character. Myanmar’s value system has flourished and been handed over to one generation after another through education: formal and non-formal. Those have been taught at the heart of Monastic Education which is based on the teachings of Buddha. With its own ways and manners, Myanmar has its own literature, own culture, own tradition and customs. Under the Teachings and guidance of Buddha, Myanmar is in line with Mingala Tayar, Thingaha Tayar, Byamaso Tayar and Hiri Auttapa Tayar which are the lineage of relationship among brother and sister, mother and child, teacher and pupil, visitor and host, husband and wife, neighbour and relatives, etc. Those are also indispensable persistence of Myanmar’s ways and manners which pave the way to cultural preservation and Myanmar culture to be intact.
Though the Ministry of Culture has undergone many times for merging with other Ministries/Departments like the Department of Planning, Home Affairs, Education, Social Welfare, Ministry of Information and Ministry of Religious Affairs, its main mandate never change. At present, the Twelve Objectives of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar State Administration Council, the Four Objectives concerning Social Affairs are prior among the religious affairs, cultural affairs and history and archaeology research efforts of Myanmar.
Regardless of the state policy, those objectives of the culture policy must have objectives to strengthen national culture through joint research, and development and instil national awareness and nationalism. In this way, sociocultural needs and standards and quality of arts can be fulfilled and promoted. The legacy of reforms made in successive governments in Myanmar, it is obvious that the fundamental policy for the culture has been based on National Integration and unity of the nationalities by preserving and recognizing their cultures and traditions. Those historical antecedents: pre-independence to the successive governments with different ideologies and perspectives, many changes have been made. Whatever the changes, the main ideology of Culture Policy in Myanmar will be based on the everlasting “non-disintegration of the union; non-disintegration of the national races and consolidation of national sovereignty”.
(2) Myanmar Politics, Volume I to IV, Historical Research Department (2011)
(3) Culture Magazines, ( issued by the Ministry of Culture)

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